17 April, 2012
Priorities of long-term science and technology development in Uzbekistan defined
On restoration of the historical and cultural heritage of Uzbekistan
On the application of modern methods of contraception in Uzbekistan
Priorities of long-term science and technology development in Uzbekistan defined
The Committee for Coordination of Science and Technology Development under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan jointly with the Academy of Sciences, ministries and departments, with participation of leading scientists and specialists of the country identified eight priority areas of science and technology development for 2012-2020.
Those include the following areas:
- Spiritual, moral and cultural development of democratic law-based society, building an innovative economy;
- Energy and resource conservation in the electricity industry;
- Increased use of renewable energy sources;
- Development of information and communication technologies;
- Introduction of modern agricultural technology, environmental aspects and environmental protection;
- Medicine and Pharmacology;
- Chemical technology and nanotechnology;
- The science of the earth (geology, geophysics, seismology and mineral processing).
In accordance with the priority areas of science and technology development, the scientific and technical programs form in the basic (the birth of scientific ideas) and applied research (specific development) as well as innovation (the first step toward industrial production).
These areas form the basis of the state scientific and technical programs of fundamental research in 2012-2016, the Committee for Coordination of Science and Technology informed.
Scientific and technical programs in fundamental research are aimed at obtaining new knowledge about trends of nature and society development, creating the necessary theoretical framework for application development. First of all financing is directed on work to ensure the growth of knowledge and scientific capacity which are of great strategic importance for the future use of the results. Term of program performance is up to five years.
Scientific and technical programs of applied research are based on the results of fundamental research and are aimed at creation of new types of equipment and technologies to achieve a breakthrough in a particular area.
These programs are a unique source for the replenishment of innovative package of proposals for further development in the sectors of economy. Term of program performance is up to three years.
The task of innovative programs of scientific and technical works is to improve the technological level and competitiveness of production, ensure the output of innovative products to the domestic and export markets, import substitution and formation of export-oriented economic structure. The term of implementation of programs of innovation is not more than two years.
Since 2008, Uzbekistan in the light of the July Decision of the President "On additional measures to stimulate innovative projects and technologies in production", provides a closer connection between science and the real sector.
The bodies of economic administration and enterprises are responsible for establishment of funds for modernization and new technologies, as well as departments or design bureaus responsible for innovative development of the industry and an enterprise. The source of their formation is part of depreciation and net income of business entities, as well as targeted revenues from customers.
There are tax benefits for educational and research institutions and organizations and design organizations up to 2013. These include exemption from income tax, single payment tax, value added tax and compulsory payments to government trust funds (except single social payment) with regard to implementation of applied research and development works.
Officials of the Committee on Development of Science and Technology pointed out that innovative programs include, the scope of applied research and development on natural sciences and engineering, experimental design and technological work. At the same time developments, as a rule, focus on getting specific trade result in terms of pilot plant samples and experimental batches of products.
The competition programs of innovative works are based on suggestions of business entities to address the problems by the "order - result" scheme.
One of the elements of effective mechanism for implementation of innovative projects is the principle of equity financing, allowing to carry out these developments through a flexible combination of budget funds, funds of industries and regions, companies and organizations interested in the results of developments for solution of defined problems. This is a kind of guarantee that this development will be demanded, introduced into production.
In recent years, Tashkent annually holds innovation fairs. The 5th Republican fair of innovative ideas, technologies and projects, as reported by the Committee for Development of Science and Technology, will take place in Tashkent on May 3-5. It will feature 500 new innovative developments of Uzbek scientists for business entities.
According to official figures in 2010, there were 30.3 thousand professionals and researchers performing research and development in Uzbekistan, including scientific and teaching staff of universities.
The analysis shows that 18.1% of the studies are carried out in the field of technical disciplines. Second place is shared by physical and mathematical sciences and the medical industry with a share of 11.6% each. Third place is taken by the philological discipline (10%). In total, more than 51% of the studies of Uzbek scientists are conducted in these sciences.(Source: UzReport.com)
On restoration of the historical and cultural heritage of Uzbekistan and revival of cultural and spiritual values of the Uzbek people during the years of independence
Uzbekistan is a country of an ancient civilization and profound culture. None of other Central Asian republics has such a large quantity of monuments of history and ancient culture as does Uzbekistan. The land of our republic is a peculiar precious achieve, preserving unique historical and archaeological monuments of various epochs from evolution of the human sapiens to formation of large ancient states. It is no mere chance that large archeological explorations in Uzbekistan have made archeology a separate field of historical science, development of which is also marked with a series of remarkable discoveries of international significance.
With obtaining the state sovereignty of Uzbekistan, revival of spirituality and culture, restoration of true history and singularity have become one of the priorities of the state policy of the republic. “Rehabilitation of spiritual values we consider as an organic and natural growth of national identity, return to spiritual origins of the nation, to its roots”, says Islam Karimov.
Having rightly realized all importance of spiritual and cultural values as a basis of development and powerful impetus to national identity, the government of Uzbekistan led by President began widely advocating customs, traditions and national values of the Uzbek people. All national and religious holidays – Navruz, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha – have been reinstated. Holy religion of our ancestors – Islam has been resurrected. Embodying highly moral and humane principles, Islam has always played a uniting role and synthesized millennial experience of spiritual development of our people. Old mosques have been reconstructed with new ones been built. A number of religious institutions, including Tashkent Islamic University, have been established. Numerous monuments of culture and history, masterpieces and pride of the Uzbek nation, were restored with construction of new memorial complexes such as the Memorial of Remembrance and Tribute, Imam al-Bukhari, Al-Ferghani, Amir Temur and Temurids Museum and many others, which encompass traditions of Oriental architecture and modern developments of architecture and at the same time, distinguish by their fineness and grandeur.
The Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) made a decision to nominate Tashkent a Capital of Islamic culture and civilization in 2007, which was an acknowledgment by the international community of the great contribution of Uzbekistan to both Muslim and world civilizations.
Creation of the independent state today helps revive the cultural and spiritual values of Uzbek people and the wealth of historical and archaeological heritage, which reveals a multifaceted history of the people plays a decisive role in this.
We can define several major directions of history, in the development of which archaeological materials and discoveries became the priority and sometimes the only source. One of these directions was the discoveries in the field of human origins and primitive culture. Half a century ago there were discovered the first traces of ancient people who lived in the territory of our Republic. But only in recent decades there were made discoveries of world importance, which became a real breakthrough in historical science. The discovery and study of the Stone Age monuments in Southern Fergana and Tashkent oasis, ages of which are determined from half a million to 400-50 thousand years old, included Uzbekistan to the world regions where the anthropogenesis process took place. The most important openings are the discoveries of the prehistoric man’s remains in the Obirahmat cave (in the Tashkent oasis), the study of which changes the idea of the formation of the becoming of the modern human. Despite the obsolete concept of stages of human evolution, modern science approved the idea of the coexistence of different types of fossil man and their possible crossing. Obirahmat cave dweller, who lived about 70-50 thousand years ago represents such a crossbreeding form of anthropogenesis process. These findings join the latest achievements of foreign scientists who trace this process on the materials of Africa, Portugal, France, Middle East.
Another important area, which today has advanced the researches of Uzbek archaeologists is the achievements in the study of ancient civilizations and the origin of cities in the territory of the Republic. They allowed defining zones of development of ancient civilizations: the South - farming, and the North - with integrated pastoral farming, which is slightly behind in time. Agricultural civilization of the first cities of the ancient oriental type opened in the twentieth century in the south of Uzbekistan has significantly expanded its limits with the work of Uzbek scholars. As it is now established, it occupied a vast territory from the north of the Amu Darya (Bactria) to Zarafshan (Central Sogdiana). This civilization of the second half of III - mid II century BC, called the Bactrian-Margiana differs with highly developed skills of architecture and construction in the building of forts, palaces and major ideological centres - the temples, fortresses, with the rituals associated with the future religion of Zoroastrianism.
Nowadays, the beginning of statehood in Middle Asia is associated with Bactria, mentioned even in Assyrian annals (VIII century BC), and its prosperity – Kushan State (I-IV centuries AD), which was characterized by synthesis of local cultural traditions with the Greek and Indian influence. This kingdom was one of the largest empires of the East. Peculiar school of architecture, sculpture and painting was formed in it. The art of Khalchayan, Dalverzintepa (Surkhandarya province) are examples, both secular and religious. Buddhist painting and sculpture Karatepe, Fayaztepa in Old Termez are unique. Here, such artistic masterpieces as the famous sculptural frieze of Airtam or image of Buddha with two monks (known as “triad” II-III century BC) were created.
Nowadays, the gallery of Buddhist sculpture characters are enriched by discoveries of Uzbek-French and Uzbek-Japanese expeditions in Termez. This art was further developed in the early Middle Ages, as the temple on the site of Kuva in Ferghana with a lot of sculptures, which carefully preserved in museums, could be evidence of that. An invaluable heritage of ancient sculptors is an integral part of the artistic treasures of our nation.
Important discoveries were made in recent times on the site of Kampirtepa in Surkhandarya. This is a port city on the Amu Darya with fortress of II century BC, which almost completely excavated by archaeologists. The monument is saved as an important historic and tourist site. Its walls and towers were reconstructed using ancient methods of construction.
Civilization of ancient Khorezm, which was discovered earlier by archaeologists, has been enriched in recent decades not only by new monuments, but also modern interpretations of its origin. The beginning of the ancient culture of Khorezm in the delta of Amu Darya rises early I millennium BC, and the formation of civilization itself and ancient cities began about 2700 years ago, with strong influence from the south of Bactria and Margiana. From the middle of I millennium BC, there is a reason to talk about abdication of Khorezm state.
Currently, a large ancient settlement Kazatly-yatgan was discovered on the right bank of Khorezm, which was recognized as the ancient capital of early Khorezm Kingdom. Palace-temple complexes with oldest among known in Central Asia wall paintings (“gallery of kings”), sculptures and examples of ancient Khorezm writing were discovered.
Civilization of Central Asia as a part of the East was deeply urbanized. Medieval Arab geographers noted that no area of the East had so many flourishing cities, as Maverannahr – Middle Asian Mesopotamia, and numbered here more than 200 cities. Many of them have an ancient foundation going back to the beginning of formation of the state.
Currently, comprehensive studies of major historical cities, which were originated from ancient times and are living a full life today, are being continued. These are – Samarkand, Bukhara, Karshi, Shahrisabz, Termez and Tashkent, Khiva, centers of Ferghana Valley and Tashkent oasis. The excavations of these cities reveal the ways of development of statehood, the relationship between urban and rural settlements, the country's economy in general and its role in the integrative processes of the nations of Central Asia.
The above archaeological achievements of Uzbekistan are only a few milestones in the creation of archaeological science itself. At present stage the archaeology of Uzbekistan has enriched its traditional methods of research and is applying allied science methods, such as GIS system and JPS adopted in the geography, which allow to record the stages of the composition of settlement sites and their entire systems. Chronological development of historical geography, previously performed by a complex system of maps, is currently being addressed on electronic computer basis.
In the area of improving the absolute chronology, the application of data of natural sciences, continuous perfection radio-carboxylic, potassium-argon, dendrochronological dating methods are widely entered into use in archaeological science of Central Asia.
Rich archaeological heritage study is only one scientific side of the problem. Another, no less important, is the preservation of invaluable monuments of the Uzbek people and the conservation of the most prominent of them using modern methods in order to make them objects of international tourism.
An important constituent of the restoration of historical and cultural heritage is the continuation of an effective activity on identification and protection of monuments of material culture. It is held on the basis of the Law «On protection and use of objects of archaeological heritage» adopted by the Legislative Chamber of Uzbekistan on 16 June 2009. Thanks to this the law efforts have recently been intensified to take over the protection of previously unknown cultural monuments. Today there are about 4000 archaeological sites taken under protect, but in the future their number will be growing rapidly.
Work has been continued to draft a code of monuments in the regions of Uzbekistan, conducted according to international standards of UNESCO bodies to protect heritage, as well as their preparation them for inclusion to a protective inventory. This work is carried out by archaeologists with the authorities for protection and use of objects of historical heritage of the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
In independence years, along with restoration of architectural ensembles, the conservation of unique archaeological monuments of different eras - Buddhist temples in Surkhandarya region, fortifications of Bukhara and Samarkand, the palace complex of ancient Khorezm, ancient city centre of Tashkent - Mingurik town, is being carried out using modern methods.
In total over a 1,000 ancient monuments of architecture and archeology have been restored. All this contributes to both preservation of cultural heritage of the country and studying the ancient monuments, though problems in this sphere still persist.
One of the most important directions of spiritual revival of Uzbekistan is the rebirth of true history, especially of the epoch of Amir Temur, end of XIX – beginning of XX century, Jadids’ movement, national liberation movements, period of the Soviet totalitarian system, which has allowed objectively report on historical events and processes, reveal the classified pages of history of Uzbekistan. The great ancestors of the Uzbek people whose names had been unfairly forgotten during the years of colonial regime, such as Imam al-Bukhari, Imam at-Termizi, Bakhauddin Nakshband, Khoja Akhmad Yassavi, Amir Temur, Boborakhim Mashrab, Burkhoniddin Marghiloni and others have been restored. These and other great ancestors had enormously contributed not only in Uzbek national culture, but to the entire human civilization.
Rich historical heritage of Uzbekistan, its spiritual and moral traditions, invaluable contribution into the world culture have become a basis and a visiting card of Uzbekistan’s becoming the subject of international relations, broad foreign political and economic activity.
Speaking of integration of the country into the world community, President Islam Karimov notes: “We stand, above all, for integration in spiritual sphere, science, culture, education and information” what, undoubtedly contributes to broad demonstration of historical and cultural heritage of the Uzbek people on international level and guarantees the success of social-economic and political reforms in the country, success of scientific and technical progress.
In the course of the country’s integration in the world spiritual community, Uzbekistan’s October, 1993 joining the UNESCO – an universal international body which unites the national systems of science, culture and education and meanwhile enriches them with integrated experience of world intellectual development, introduces the people to the enormously rich spiritual heritage of humankind.
In the process of revival and growth of national self-consciousness the historical memory, restoration of unprejudiced and true history of the Uzbek people secures an important place.
The Government of the country adopted numerous resolutions aimed at studying the history of Uzbekistan and its statehood. In this regard the activity of Uzbekistan’s scholars and public organizations has been quite productive. Among them the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan has been the most active. The Institute has prepared and published scientific and popular science research papers on different periods of history of the Uzbek nation which previously were not covered.
Commemoration of anniversaries of Uzbekistan’s ancient cities and great ancestors secures plays a special role in revival of spiritual heritage of Uzbekistan and its international recognition. Upon the resolution of the Government of Uzbekistan the country widely celebrated 600 years anniversary of the great scholar and ruler Mirzo Ulugbek (1994), 660 years anniversary of the great statesman, military commander Amir Temur (1996), 1225 years anniversary of the great thinker, soltan of hadith Al-Bukhari and 1200 years anniversary of a famous scientist Al-Ferghani (1998), 2700 years anniversary of “Avesta” (2001), 1000 years anniversary of heroic epos of “Alpomish”, 800 years anniversary of the great son of Uzbek nation J.Manguberdi (1999), 1300 years anniversary of Imam Moturidiy and 910 years anniversary of Al-Margiloni (2000), anniversary of the Academy of Mamun (2006). Those festivities were included in the list of UNESCO calendar events and widely celebrated on international level.
Besides, a number of cities whose age was determined based on archeological research, upon UNESCO’s decision also celebrated their anniversaries: Samarkand celebrated its 2750 years anniversary (2007), Karshi – 2700 years anniversary (2006), Bukhara (1997), Khiva (1997) and Termez – 2500 years anniversary (2002), Tashkent – 2200 years anniversary (2009), and Marghilan – 2000 years anniversary (2007).
What was reason for these anniversaries to be commemorated so widely? As a matter of fact, in research papers of some foreign scholars the activity of our great ancestors covered ambiguously, sometimes biased. Holding of these international conferences has allowed fully, comprehensively and objectively cover the activity and creation of those persons and define new priorities of our country which undoubtedly is a big success of the Uzbek diplomacy and scholars of our country.
Among international jubilee events we can mention the 1994 Mirzo Ulugbek week at UNESCO headquarters in Paris. The function started with international symposium on “Mirzo Ulugbek and the epoch of the Great Temurids” . In continuation of the festivities the “Ulugbek and traditional art” was held. It was dedicated to the life and activity of Mirzo Ulugbek, his time, dynasty “The Week of Ulughbek” held by UNESCO has let the people and guests of Paris to get acquainted with Uzbekistan, as well as its rich cultural and spiritual heritage and essential developments, taken place during the short span of time after Independence.
As a result of ongoing studies on Mirza Ulughbek’s works by scholars, the International Conference entitled “Mirza Ulughbek and his contribution to world science” was held in 2009 to mark “The Year of Astronomy” announced by UNESCO.
A scientific conference and an exhibition “The Progress of Science, Culture and Education during the epoch of Temurids’ Dynasty” dedicated to the anniversary of Amir Temur were held at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris in April 1996.
At its inaugural ceremony, the President Islam Karimov has rightly pointed out that one of the historical missions of Amir Temur was that, due to his endeavors, for the first time in history the nations of Asia and Europe were joined in one geopolitical domain.
The guests of the exhibition including President of France Jacque Chirac and the UNESCO Director General Federico Mayor have familiarized themselves with the displays, exploring scientific and cultural heritage of the epoch of Amir Temur and his dynasty (manuscripts, coins, clothes and other items), as well as with paintings and artworks of modern Uzbek artists devoted to the Temur’s Dynasty.
In June 1997 a week-long activities have been held in Paris to mark 2500th anniversary of ancient cities of Bukhara and Khiva. The activities included an exhibition dedicated to Bukhara and Khiva, a theatric show “The Great Silk Road” and a performance by Uzbek dancers.
In his speech, the UNESCO Director General has stressed that thousands years back Bukhara and Khiva were the spiritual centers which greatly enriched the cultural heritage of humanity .
2200th anniversary of Tashkent has been celebrated with cultural and scientific programs at the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris in April 2009. A number of academic conferences have also been held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan for the same cause.
Hence, the anniversary celebrations have focused the attention of international cultural and academic community on Uzbekistan, and not only promoted the studies on great ancestors and cities and their contribution to world civilization, but also encouraged world community’s awareness about the achievements in the sphere of revival of the national cultural and historical values.
It is also pertinent to mention that with collaboration of foreign and local scholars a number of fundamental works have been published, dedicated to the personalities of Amir Temur, Al Bukhari, Al Farghani, and the cities of Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand and Tashkent . In these works, for the first time the great heritage of our ancestors and cities has been studied in the light of socio-economic developments and cultural processes of those ancient epochs.
The concrete outcome of the project “The Silk Road - the Road of Dialogue” has become the foundation of the International Institute for Central Asian Studies (IICA) in Samarkand in 1996 with the participation of 12 countries of the world.
The mission of the Institute is to study the Central Asian history, to give its objective assessment to processes going on in Central Asian countries on their modern path of development. In the framework of these fundamental researches the essential works of Y.F.Buryakov and A.A.Gritsina named “Mavaraunnakhr on the Great Silk Road” (2003) has been published and the International Academic Conference entitled “The Strabo Route as a Part of the Great Silk Road” has been organized in 2008.
An important outcome of the studies on the history of Central Asia, jointly carried out by the different scholars around the world has been the publishing of “The history of civilizations of Central Asia” in six volumes, which gives overall picture of historical and cultural processes in Central Asian region, stretched from Mediterranean Sea to China.
With the efforts of this International Organization well-known cities of Bukhara, Khiva and Shahrisabz, the collection of oriental manuscripts at the Institute of Oriental Studies of Uzbekistan’s Academy of Sciences, and unique Usman’s Koran were included to the “World Heritage List”, which comprises of more than 690 monuments and historical locations of the world, among them are Versailles of France, Italian cities of Venice and Florence, the Egyptian Pyramids and Taj Mahal of India .
The inclusion of our historical and cultural monuments into the “World Heritage List” serves as the recognition of their importance and belonging to the whole humanity and responsibility of the world community for their preservation.
Thus, the revival of spiritual, historical and cultural values of the Uzbek Nation is the foundation for the self-determination, formation and development of National statehood as well as the spiritual and moral impetus for wide-scale developments and the aspirations of the country for the future.
Wide international interest to the developments in Uzbekistan is not only the recognition of the Government’s policy on this direction, but also promotion of Uzbekistan’s contribution to world culture and the unity of universal and national values, which is no doubt, an important factor for the peaceful relationship among the nations.
On the application of modern methods of contraception in Uzbekistan
The Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan implements a number of large-scale State programs aimed at strengthening women's health, the birth and raising a healthy generation, increasing the medical culture in the family. During 20 years of Independence of our country the child and maternal mortality rates fell three and two times respectively, while the life expectancy for women climbed up to 75 from 67 years.
Ensuring safe maternity is one of the priorities of state policy in Uzbekistan. Recognizing the fundamental rights of women and couples to make decisions freely and responsibly about the child's birth, the government provides them with services required for the formation of healthy family, in accordance to which all types of modern contraceptives are being provided free of charge.
Prior to 1990 the main method of preventing unwanted pregnancies in Uzbekistan was abortion. Each year more than 6% of women of fertile age used to get rid of an unwanted pregnancy. During the period from 1991 to 2011 the overall abortion rate in the republic declined by more than 5 times and over the past few years cases of illegal abortions have not been recorded.
Taking into account that the issue of abortion in many countries, including in the post-Soviet area, has an extremely negative impact on the psychophysiological conditions of the women and society, there is a reasonable question, what activities helped to achieve such results in Uzbekistan.
The main areas of protection of the reproductive health are reflected in the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated April 13, 2009, ¹ PP-1096 “On additional measures on protection of the health of mother and child, formation of a healthy generation” and “Programme of measures for 2009-2013 to further strengthen and improve the efficiency of the work carried out to improve reproductive health of the population, the birth of a healthy child, the formation of physically and spiritually mature generation”, approved by the Decree ¹ PP-1144 in 2009. The implementation of activities under these programs has allowed in three years to increase the coverage and availability of various methods of contraception among the women in most remote regions of the country.
At the present stage the population of the country is familiarized with the effects of different methods of contraception: intrauterine devices (IUDs), both oral and injectable hormonal contraceptives and methods when couples consciously decide to voluntary surgical contraception (VSC). The main requirements for modern contraceptives are high efficiency, minimum side effects affecting a woman's body, simplicity, accessibility.
According to researches conducted in the country by international organizations (WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA), 90.9% of all women of reproductive age are familiar with the modern methods of contraception. The most well-known methods are IUDs, oral pills, injections. If in 1991 only 13% of women of fertile age regularly used certain types of contraceptives, by the end of 2011 their number reached more than 67%. The prevalence of contraceptive use is almost the same in rural (69%) and urban (66%) areas. Especially important to note the increase in use of contraceptives among 20-30 years-old women with highest birth rate. In 2011, the most common method of preventing of unwanted pregnancy became a IUDs, which are used by up to 65.5% of women of fertile age. 27.2% of women use hormonal contraceptives (oral tablets and injectable contraceptives) and 7.2% - voluntary surgical contraception.
VSC is a common method of contraception in the world. For example, the number of women, using this method, reaches 25% in Asian countries, 30% - in Latin America and the Caribbean. Meantime, in the number of developed countries of Europe this figure varies from 6 to 14%.
In Uzbekistan in recent years, thanks to application of high-tech equipment (laparoscopic method), the use of local anaesthesia with small sedative effect, improvement of surgical techniques and training of medical personnel, the use of VSC increased from 3.3% in 2000 to 7.2% in 2011.
Application in the country of the VSC method is not dominant among all other methods of contraception and is carried out on a voluntary basis after consultation with a specialist with the written consent of both spouses and completing the form of informed consent.
The production of caesarean operations in Uzbekistan in 2011 averaged at a very low level of 6.8% with regard to all births. Created system of provision of highly skilled obstetric care in the Republican and regional perinatal centres of the country increased the percentage of caesarean operations by identifying and assisting under severe obstetric pathology, but this figure does not exceed 26% even at the Republican Perinatal Centre, in which concentrated pregnant women and mothers with complicated pregnancy and delivery from across the country.
The garbled information on the methods of contraception in Uzbekistan, and particularly, the allegations about "forced sterilisation of women”, which appear in some media, have nothing to do with the real situation in the country and can be considered as purposeful slander against our nation.
Numerous studies conducted by representatives of many international organisations, such as WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA, have confirmed the transparency of the policy pursued by the Government of Uzbekistan in respect of human rights on protection of reproductive health and healthy family.
The Tashkent International Symposium, which was held in November 2011 with the participation of the WHO Director General Mrs Margaret Chan, leadership of UNICEF, UNFPA and many other international organisations, with the adoption of the Resolution of the Symposium, once again showed that the National model of protection of maternity and childhood in Uzbekistan can serve as a model for many countries, not only the region, but around the world.
The healthcare system of Uzbekistan was also highly assessed by Save the Children, international organization on protection of children's rights. On 6 September 2011, this organisation published a report titled “Health Workers Reach Index”, in which the situation in the children's health systems in 161 countries was analysed on three indicators:
1) a measure of health worker density;
2) the percentage of children receiving three doses of the vaccine for diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus;
3) skilled birth attendance rate.
Uzbekistan in this index is placed at 9th position (Germany - 10, Russia - 11, France - 12, UK – 14, USA - 15, Latvia – 41). Among the top ten countries with the best performance are seven European countries (Switzerland (1), Finland (2), Ireland (3), Norway (4), Belarus (5), Denmark (6), Sweden (7) as well as Cuba (8).